A surgical flap is a soft tissue flap that is incised and retracted so that underlying bone can be removed to expose teeth, roots and pathologic tissue. The indication for the surgical flap is inability to remove the structure or tissue without traumatizing the surrounding tissues.
In order to design a mucoperiosteal flap successfully for oral surgery there are points that must be considered. Proper instrumentation is also a must. A surgical incision will heal by primary intention but if tissue is torn as a result of poor flap design or handling the healing will be delayed.